1. General information

1.16. Employee benefits

(a) Pension and other retirement obligations

The Group operates various pension and other retirement schemes, including both defined benefit and defined contribution pension plans in accordance with the local conditions and practices in the countries in which it operates. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. The Group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods. A defined benefit plan is a pension plan that is not a defined contribution plan.

Typically defined benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.

The liability recognized in the statement of financial position in respect of defined benefit pension or retirement plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the reporting date less the fair value of plan assets.

The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high quality corporate bonds or government bonds which have terms to maturity approximating to the terms of the related pension obligation.

Past service costs are recognized in profit or loss on the earlier of:

  • The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and
  • The date that the Group recognizes restructuring-related costs

Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Group recognizes the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation:

  • Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements under other operating expenses/income
  • Net interest expense or income under finance expenses

Re-measurements, comprising of the actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding net interest (not applicable to the Group) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), are recognized immediately in the statement of financial position with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.

For defined contribution plans, the Group pays contributions to publicly or privately administered pension insurance plans on a mandatory, contractual or voluntary basis. Once the contributions have been paid, the Group has no further payment obligations. The regular contributions constitute net periodic costs for the year in which they are due and as such are included in staff costs.

(b) Termination benefits

Termination benefits are payable whenever an employee’s employment is terminated by the Group, before the normal retirement date or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits.

The Group recognises termination benefits when it is demonstrably committed to a termination when the entity has a detailed formal plan to terminate the employment of current employees without possibility of withdrawal. The obligating event is the termination and not the service. In the case of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy, the termination benefits are measured based on the number of employees expected to accept the offer. Benefits falling due more than 12 months after the end of the reporting period are discounted to their present value.

(c) Profit sharing and bonus plans

A liability for employee benefits in the form of profit sharing and bonus plans is recognised in other provisions when the following conditions are met:

  • there is a formal plan and the amounts to be paid are determined before the time of issuing the financial statements; or
  • past practice has created a valid expectation by employees that they will receive a bonus/ profit sharing and the amount can be determined before the time of issuing the financial statements.

(d) Share-based payments

Share options are granted to certain members of senior management at a discount to the market price of the shares at par value on the respective dates of the grants and are exercisable at those prices. The options must be exercised within twelve months of their respective vesting period. The scheme has a contractual option term of three years.

The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of the options is recognised as an expense during the vesting period, which is the period over which all of the specific vesting conditions are to be satisfied. The total amount to be expensed over the vesting period is determined by reference to the fair value of the options granted, specified by the date of grant:

  • Including any market performance conditions (for example, an entity’s share price);
  • Excluding the impact if any service and non-market performance vesting conditions (for example profitability, sales growth targets and remaining an employee of the entity over a specified time period); and
  • Including the impact of any non-vesting conditions (for example, the requirement for employees to save)

At the end of each reporting date, the Group revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to vest and recognises the impact of the revision of original estimates, if any, in administrative expenses and cost of goods sold in the income statement, with a corresponding adjustment to equity. When the options are exercised, the Company issues new shares. The proceeds received net of any directly attributable transaction costs are credited to share capital (nominal value) and share premium reserve.

1.17. Government grants

Government grants are recognised at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the Group will comply with all attached conditions.

Government grants are recognized in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Group recognizes as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate. Specifically, government grants whose primary condition is that the Group should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire non-current assets are recognized as deferred revenue in the statement of financial position and transferred to profit or loss on a systematic and rational basis over the useful lives of the related assets.