1. General information

1.2. Consolidation

(a) Subsidiaries

The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of the Group and its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries are all entities (including special purpose entities) over which the Group has control. Control exists when the Group has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity generally accompanying a shareholding of more than one half of voting rights. The existence and effect of potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible are considered when assessing whether the Group controls another entity. The Group also assesses existence of control where it does not have more than 50% of the voting power but is able to govern the financial and operating policies by virtue of de-facto control. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Group. They are deconsolidated from the date that control ceases.

The Group uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The consideration transferred for the acquisition of a subsidiary is the fair values of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the Group. The consideration transferred includes the fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement. Acquisition related costs are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. The Group recognises any non-controlling interest in the acquiree on an acquisition-by-acquisition basis either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s net assets.

If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date carrying value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is re-measured to fair value at the acquisition date.

Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the Group is recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration that is deemed to be an asset or liability is recognised in accordance with IAS 39 either in profit or loss or as a change to other comprehensive income. Contingent consideration that is classified as equity is not re-measured, and its subsequent settlement is accounted for within equity.

Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the amount recognised for non-controlling interest over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If the fair value of the net assets acquired is in excess of the aggregate consideration transferred, the gain is recognised in profit or loss (note 1.6).

After initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is, from the acquisition date, allocated to each of the Group’s cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the combination, irrespective of whether other assets or liabilities of the acquiree are assigned to those units.

Where goodwill has been allocated to a cash-generating unit and part of the operation within that unit is disposed of, the goodwill associated with the disposed operation is included in the carrying amount of the operation when determining the gain or loss on disposal. Goodwill disposed in these circumstances is measured based on the relative values of the disposed operation and the portion of the cash-generating unit retained.

Losses within a subsidiary are attributed to the non-controlling interest even if that results in a deficit balance.

In the Company’s separate financial statements, investments in subsidiaries are account for at cost less impairment, if any. Cost is adjusted to reflect changes in consideration arising from contingent consideration amendments.

The subsidiaries’ financial statements are prepared as of the same reporting date and using the same accounting policies as the parent company. Intra-group transactions, balances and unrealised gains/losses on transactions between group companies are eliminated.

(b) Changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries without change of control

Transactions with non-controlling interests that do not result in loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions – that is, as transactions with the owners in their capacity as owners. The difference between fair value of any consideration paid and the relevant share acquired of the carrying value of net assets of the subsidiary is recorded in equity. Gains or losses on disposals to non-controlling interests are also recorded in equity.

(c) Disposal of subsidiaries

When the Group ceases to have control any retained interest in the entity is re-measured to its fair value at the date when control is lost, with the change in carrying amount recognised in profit or loss. The fair value is the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequently accounting for the retained interest as an associate, joint venture or financial asset. In addition, any amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. This may mean that amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss.

(d) Joint ventures

A joint venture is an entity jointly controlled by the Group and one or more other ventures in terms of a contractual arrangement. The Group’s interest in jointly controlled entities is accounted for by the proportional consolidation method of accounting. The Group combines its share of the joint ventures’ individual income and expenses, assets and liabilities and cash flows on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Group’s financial statements. The Group recognises the portion of gains or losses on the sale of assets by the Group to the joint venture that is attributable to the other ventures.

The Group’s share of intra-group balances, transactions and unrealised gains and losses on such transactions between the Group and its joint venture are eliminated on consolidation. Losses on transactions are recognized immediately if there is evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of current assets or an impairment loss. The joint venture is proportionately consolidated until the date on which the Group ceases to have joint control over the joint venture.

Upon loss of joint control, the Group measures and recognises its remaining investment at its fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the investment upon loss of joint control and the fair value of the remaining investment and proceeds from disposal is recognised in profit or loss. When the remaining investment constitutes significant influence, it is accounted for as an investment in an associate.

Accounting policies of joint ventures have been adjusted where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.

The financial statements of the joint ventures are prepared for the same reporting date with the parent company.

In the Company’s separate financial statements, the investment in joint ventures is stated at cost less impairment, if any.