2. Significant accounting estimates and judgments

The preparation of the financial statements requires management to make estimations and judgments that affect the reported disclosures. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates, which are presented bellow in paragraphs 2.1 to 2.12.

Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated and are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

These management’s estimation and assumptions form the bases for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily available from other sources. The resulting accounting estimates will, by definition, seldom equal the related actual results. The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are discussed below.

2.1.   Impairment of goodwill and other non-financial assets

Management tests annually whether goodwill has suffered any impairment, in accordance with the accounting policy stated in paragraph 1.6. The recoverable amounts of cash-generating units have been determined based on value-in-use calculations. The basic assumptions that are used in the calculations are explained further in note 13. These calculations require the use of estimates which mainly relate to future earnings and discount rates.

Non-financial assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable, in accordance with the accounting policy stated in paragraph 1.8.

2.2.   Income taxes

Group entities are subject to income taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining the worldwide provision for income taxes. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain during the ordinary course of business. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will impact the income tax and deferred tax provisions in the period in which such determination is made.

2.3.   Deferred tax assets

Deferred tax assets are recognised for unused tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the losses can be utilised. Significant management judgment is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognised, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits together with future tax planning strategies. Further details on taxes are disclosed in note 8.

2.4.   Fair value and useful lives of property, plant and equipment

In addition, management makes estimations in relation to useful lives of amortized assets. Further information is given in paragraph 1.4.

2.5.   Allowance for net realisable value of inventory

The allowance for net realisable value of inventory, in accordance with the accounting policy as stated in paragraph 1.10, represents management’s best estimate, based on historic sales trends and its assessment on quality and volume, of the extent to which the stock on hand at the reporting date will be sold below cost.

2.6.   Allowance for doubtful accounts receivable

The Group’s management periodically reassess the adequately of the allowance for doubtful accounts receivable using parameters such as its credit policy, reports from its legal counsel on recent developments of the cases they are handling, and its judgment/estimate about the impact of other factors affecting the recoverability of the receivables.

2.7.   Provision for environmental rehabilitation

The Group recognizes a provision for environmental rehabilitation and, more specifically, a provision for future restoration of land disturbed, as of the reporting date, as a result of past activity and in line with the prevailing environmental legislation of each country in which it operates or the binding group practices. The provision for environmental rehabilitation is re-estimated on an annual basis and it reflects the present value of the expected restoration costs, using estimated cash flows as of the reporting date and is calculated based on the area of the land disturbed at the reporting date and the cost of rehabilitation per metric unit of land at the level of the broader area of interest. Given the complexity of the calculations and the significant assumptions therein. Management provides at the reporting date its best estimate in relation to the present value of the aforementioned liability.

2.8.   Provision for staff leaving indemnities

The cost for the staff leaving indemnities is determined based on actuarial valuations. The actuarial valuation requires management making assumptions about future salary increases, discount rates, mortality rates, etc. Management, at each reporting date when the provision is re-examined, tries to give its best estimate regarding the above mentioned parameters.

2.9.   Contingent liabilities

The existence of contingent liabilities requires from management making assumptions and estimates continuously related to the possibility that future events may or may not occur as well as the effects that those events may have on the activities of the Group.

2.10.     Business combinations

On the acquisition of a company or business, a determination of the fair value and the useful lives of tangible and intangible assets acquired is performed, which requires the application of judgement. Future events could cause the assumptions used by the Group to change which could have an impact on the results and net position of the Group. Further information on business combination is given in paragraph 1.2.

2.11.     Valuation of financial instruments

The valuation of derivative financial instruments is based on the market position at the reporting date. The value of the derivative instruments fluctuates on a daily basis and the actual amounts realised may differ materially from their value at the reporting date. Further information on financial instruments is given in paragraph 1.27.

2.12.     Fair value of share-based payments

Fair values used in calculating the amount to be expensed as a share-based payment is subject to a level of uncertainty. The Group is required to calculate the fair value of the cash-settled instruments granted to employees in terms of the share option schemes, and the share-based payment charges relating to empowerment transactions. These fair values are calculated by applying a valuation model, which is in itself judgmental, and takes into account certain inherently uncertain assumptions. The basic assumptions that are used in the calculations are explained further in note 22. Further information on share based payments is given in paragraph 1.16d.