1. General information

1.6.   Intangible assets

(a) Goodwill

Goodwill arises on the acquisition of subsidiaries and represents the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the amount recognised for non-controlling interest over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.  Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from assets that are not capable of being individually identified and separately recognized in a business combination.

Goodwill is not amortized. After initial recognition, it is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.

For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is, from the acquisition date, allocated to each cash generating unit that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. Each unit or group of units to which the goodwill is allocated represents the lowest level within the entity at which the goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes. Goodwill is monitored at the operating segment level.

Impairment reviews are undertaken annually (even if there is no indication of impairment) or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate a potential impairment.  The carrying value of goodwill is compared to the recoverable amount, which is the higher of the value-in-use and the fair value less costs to sell. Any impairment is recognised immediately as an expense and is not subsequently reversed.

(b) Other intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangible assets, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised and expenditure is reflected in profit and loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.

The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite.

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the income statement as the expense category that is consistent with the function of the intangible assets.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortised, but are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite life is reviewed annually to determine whether the indefinite life continues to be supportable. If not, the change in useful life from indefinite to finite is made on a prospective basis.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the income statement when the asset is derecognised.

Acquired computer software programmes and licenses are capitalised on the basis of costs incurred to acquire and bring to use the specific software when these are expected to generate economic benefits beyond one year. Costs associated with developing or maintaining computer software programmes are recognised as an expense as incurred.

The Group’s intangible assets have a finite useful life. The amortization methods used for the Group’s intangibles are as follows:

Amortization Method Useful Lives
Patents, trademarks and customer relationships straight-line basis up to 20 years
Licenses (mining permits) straight-line basis / depletion method shorter of: the permit period and the estimated life of the underlying quarry unit-of-production method
Development costs (quarries under operating leases) note 1.7 note 1.7
Computer software straight-line basis 3 to 7 years

1.7. Deferred stripping costs

Stripping costs comprise the removal of overburden and other waste products. Stripping costs incurred in the development of a quarry before production commences are capitalised as follows:

 Where such costs are incurred on quarry land that is owned by the Group, these are included within the carrying amount of the related quarry, under Property, plant and equipment and subsequently depreciated over the life of the quarry on a units-of-production basis. Where such costs are incurred on quarries held under an operating lease, these are included under ‘Development expenditure’ under Intangible assets and amortised over the shorter of the lease term and the useful life of the quarry.

1.8. Impairment of non-financial assets other than Goodwill

Assets that have an indefinite useful life (land not related to quarries) are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment. Assets that are subject to amortisation are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised, as an expense immediately, for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (cash-generating units). Non-financial assets other than goodwill that suffered impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at each reporting date.  An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset or cash generating units (CGU) fair value less costs of sell and its value-in-use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.