1. General information

(e) Associates

Associates are entities over which the Group has significant influence but which it does not control and generally has between 20% and 50% of the voting rights. Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method of accounting and are initially recognised at cost. The Group’s investment in associates includes goodwill (net of any cumulative impairments losses) identified on acquisition.

Under the equity method the Group’s share of the post-acquisition profits or losses is recognised in the income statement and its share of post-acquisition movements in other comprehensive income is recognized in other comprehensive income with a corresponding adjustment to the carrying amount of the investment.   When the Group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in the associate, the Group does not recognize further losses, unless the Group has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associates.

If the ownership interest in an associate is reduced but significant influence is retained, only a proportionate share of the amount previously recognized in other comprehensive income is reclassified to profit or loss where appropriate. Upon loss of significant influence over the associate, the Group measures and recognises any retained investment at its fair value. Any difference between the carrying amount of the associate upon loss of significant influence and the fair value of the retained investment and proceeds from disposal is recognised in profit or loss.

The Group determines at each reporting date whether there is any objective evidence that the investment in the associate is impaired. If this is the case, the Group calculates the amount of the impairment as the difference between the recoverable amount of the associate ant its carrying value and recognizes the amount adjacent to “share of profit/(loss) of associates” in the income statement.

Profit and losses resulting from upstream and downstream transactions between the Group and its associate are recognized in the Group’s financial statements only to the extent of unrelated investor’s interests in the associates. Unrealized gains on transactions between the Group and its associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the associates; unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred.

Accounting policies of associates have been adjusted where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.

The financial statements of the associates are prepared for the same reporting date with the Parent Company.

In the Company’s separate financial statements, the investment in associates is stated at cost less impairment, if any.

(f) Commitments to purchase interests held by non-controlling interests

As part of the acquisition process of certain entities, the Group has granted third party shareholders the option to require the Group to purchase their shares subject to predetermined conditions (a “put” option). These shareholders could be either international institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), or private investors who are essentially financial or industrial investors or former shareholders of the acquired entities (note 27 &32).

The Group applies the following policy for the recognition of put options:

  • Non-controlling interest is still attributed its share of profit and losses (and other changes in equity).
  • The non-controlling interest is reclassified as a liability at each reporting date, as if the acquisition took place at that date.
  • Any difference between the fair value of the liability under the put option at the end of the reporting period and the non-controlling interest reclassified is calculated based on the current policy of the Group for acquisitions of non-controlling interests.

If the put option is ultimately exercised, the amount recognized as the financial liability at that date will be extinguished by the payment of the exercise price. If the put option expires unexercised, the position will be unwound such that the non-controlling interest at that date is reclassified back to equity and the financial liability is derecognized.

1.3. Foreign currency translation

(a) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of each entity in the Group are measured in the functional currency, which is the currency of the primary economic environment in which each Group entity operates.  The consolidated financial statements are presented in Euros, which is the functional and presentation currency of the Company and the presentation currency of the Group.

(b) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates (i.e. spot rates) prevailing at the dates of the transactions or valuation where items are re-measured. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the income statement, except when deferred in other comprehensive income as qualifying net investment hedges. When the related investment is disposal of, the cumulative amount is reclassified to profit or loss.

Translation differences on non-monetary financial assets and liabilities, such as equity investments held at fair value are included in the income statement. Translation differences on non-monetary financial assets, such as equities classified as available-for-sale, are included in other comprehensive income.

(c) Group companies

The operating results and financial position of all group entities (none of which operate in a hyperinflationary economy) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

  • Assets and liabilities for each balance sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of the balance sheet.
  • Income and expenses for each income statement are translated at average exchange rates.
  • All exchange differences resulting from the above are recognised in other comprehensive income and subsequently included in "foreign currency translation reserve".
  • On the disposal of a foreign operation, the cumulative exchange differences relating to that particular foreign operation, recognized in the "foreign currency translation reserve"  within equity, are recognised in the income statement as part of the gain or loss on sale. On the partial disposal of a foreign subsidiary, the proportionate share of the cumulative amount is re-attributed to the non-controlling interest in that operation.

On consolidation, exchange differences arising from the translation of borrowings designated as hedges of investments in foreign entities, are taken to other comprehensive income and included under "currency translation differences on derivative hedging position" in other reserves.

Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and translated at the closing rate. Exchange differences arising are recognized in other comprehensive income.